Environmental signals for climate, hydrology and water quality are often complex in their behaviour and response to stress and stimuli. Standard monitoring schemes may fail to detect or reveal this complexity, perhaps obscuring changes or shifts in response patterns. The approach adopted here is to develop and apply alternative monitoring strategies. For example, in surface and ground waters, continuous monitoring is used to generate detailed time series. Water quality surrogates such as dissolved oxygen and electrical conductivity are used to represent chemical evolution rather than using detailed laboratory analysis. Distributed monitoring allows interpretation of transport processes and contaminant source areas. Particular interest has been in the relationship between bacterial pathogens, runoff processes and surrogate monitoring, with the hope that the latter can reveal bacterial behaviour more efficiently than current infrequent sampling schemes. Work on monitoring of karst aquifers is directed at practical provision of parameters essential in characterising the aquifer and in implementing hydrological and transport models. Dye tracing and borehole monitoring are the primary tools being developed.
Landscapes in the southern Appalachians and South Island New Zealand have been studied to determine the response to past climate changes. The landscapes are of considerable age in both cases and show remnant forms produced under much wetter and geomorphically active periods in the past. Land system models are being derived for the respective cases.
Environmental data are being generated and released at increasing rates presenting opportunities and challenges in analysing data and communicating the results to a broader audience. Exploratory visual techniques are being developed allowing a wide range of responses to identified and visually presented to show the subtlety and diversity of responses to global change.
Khajavi, N., Langridge, R.M., Quigley, M.C., Smart, C.C., Rezanejad, A., Martín-González, F., 2014 Late Holocene rupture overlap and earthquake clustering on the Hope Fault, New Zealand. Submitted to Geological Society of America Bulletin.
Davies, T., Smart, C.C., 2014. The role of subglacial water-sediment abrasion in forming fiords and overdeepenings. Submitted to Geomorphology.
Worthington, Smart, C.C. and Rueland, W. 2012. Triple porosity characteristics of a carbonate aquifer with bacterial contamination: Walkerton, Ontario, Canada. Submitted to Groundwater.
Schulmeister, J., Thackray, G.D., Rieser, U, Rother, H., Smart, C.C. and Evans DJA. 2010. The stratigraphy and timing of glaciation in the middle Rakaia Valley, South Island, New Zealand with some implications for understanding past glaciations in New Zealand. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29 (17), p.2362-2381.
Ford, D.C. and Smart, C.C., 2015. The Castleguard karst. In Slaymaker O. (Ed.) Landscapes of Western Canada.
|J. Orwin||2002||The proglacial control on suspended sediment transfer patterns from a deglacierizing basin, Small River, British Columbia|
|C. Crawley||2010||Spatial and temporal assessment of the Thames River surface water quality monitoring program, Ontario|
|T. Davie||2009||Alternative monitoring strategies for mesoscale catchments: Medway Creek, Ontario|
|R. Adams||2007||Filter Fluorometric Tracing for Contaminant Transport Modeling|
|E. Hill||2006||Suspended sediment and pathogens in surface waters|
|S. Bod||2004||Surface and ground water response of an upland swamp to drainage and drainage control in Norfolk County, Ontario|
|A. Joyce||2004||Exploration of fluorometric monitoring of surface waters|
|A. Calarco||2003||Modeling systematic spatial error of digital terrain models|
|J. Barker||2000||An investigation of borehole hydrology in carbonate aquifers|
|S. Lane||1999||Investigation of systematic errors in fluorometric tracing|
|D. Lockrey||1996||Suspended sediment variations in a glacierized alpine catchment|
|L. Zabo||1995||Fluorometric tracing of subglacial hydrology, Small River Glacier, British Columbia, Canada|
|B. Ketterling||1995||Electrical conductivity of waters in glacier boreholes|
|K. Carr||1994||An investigation of the subglacial drainage system beneath the lower abliation zone of Small River Glacier, British Columbia|
|D. Huntley||1990||Hydrogeomorphology of an alpine karst|