Chris Smart


Research Interests

Environmental signals for climate, hydrology and water quality are often complex in their behaviour and response to stress and stimuli. Standard monitoring schemes may fail to detect or reveal this complexity, perhaps obscuring changes or shifts in response patterns. The approach adopted here is to develop and apply alternative monitoring strategies. For example, in surface and ground waters, continuous monitoring is used to generate detailed time series. Water quality surrogates such as dissolved oxygen and electrical conductivity are used to represent chemical evolution rather than using detailed laboratory analysis. Distributed monitoring allows interpretation of transport processes and contaminant source areas. Particular interest has been in the relationship between bacterial pathogens, runoff processes and surrogate monitoring, with the hope that the latter can reveal bacterial behaviour more efficiently than current infrequent sampling schemes. Work on monitoring of karst aquifers is directed at practical provision of parameters essential in characterising the aquifer and in implementing hydrological and transport models. Dye tracing and borehole monitoring are the primary tools being developed.

Landscapes in the southern Appalachians and South Island New Zealand have been studied to determine the response to past climate changes. The landscapes are of considerable age in both cases and show remnant forms produced under much wetter and geomorphically active periods in the past. Land system models are being derived for the respective cases.

Environmental data are being generated and released at increasing rates presenting opportunities and challenges in analysing data and communicating the results to a broader audience. Exploratory visual techniques are being developed allowing a wide range of responses to identified and visually presented to show the subtlety and diversity of responses to global change.

Publications (past 7 years)

Refereed Journals

Schulmeister, J., Thackray, G.D., Rieser, U., Rother, H., Smart, C.C. 2006. submitted. The stratigraphy and timing of glaciation in the middle Rakaia Valley, South Island, New Zealand with some implications for understanding past glaciations in New Zealand

Orwin J., and Smart, C.C. 2005 'A turbidimeter for monitoring proglacial stream suspended sediment' Geomorphology 68(1-2): 3-15

Chapters in Books

Beniske, R., Goldschedier, N. and Smart, C.C. (in press) 'Dye tracing' in  Techniques in Karst Hydrology, International Association for Scientific Hydrology ed N. Goldscheider

Smart, C.C. Simpson, B. and Joyce, A.J. 2003 'Fluorescence spectroscopy as a screening tool and continuous monitor for urban water quality' in Urban Water Systems ed W. James 12: 115-123

Schindel, G.M., Johnson, S. and Smart, C.C. 2003 'Groundwater pollution: remediation' in Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science ed J. Gunn, J. 406-407

Smart, C.C. 2003 'Karst Water Resources' in  Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science ed J. 486-487

Smart, C.C. 2003 'Alpine Karst' in Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science ed J. Gunn 31-33

Smart, C.C. and Worthington, S.R.H. 2003 'Springs' in  Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science ed J. Gunn 706-710

Smart, C.C. and Worthington, S.R.H. 2003 'Water Tracing' in Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science ed J. Gunn 777-779

Smart C.C., and Worthington, S.R.H. 2003 'Groundwater in Karst' Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science ed J. Gunn 396-399.

Smart, C.C., and Worthington, S.R.H. 2003 'Borehole Hydrology' in Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science ed J. Gunn 399-400

Smart, C.C., 2003 'Glacier Caves and Glacier Pseudokarst' in Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science ed J. Gunn, J. 387-390

Smart, C.C., 2003 'Glacierized and Glaciated Karst' in Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science ed J. Gunn 390-394

Worthington, S.R.H. and Smart, C.C., 2003. Groundwater in karst: mathematical models, in Gunn, J., Ed.Encyclopaedia of Caves and Karst. 401-403

Worthington, S.R.H. and Smart, C.C. 2003 'Groundwater modeling in karst: conceptual models' in Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst ed J. Gunn 399-401

Supervised Graduate Students and Theses Titles

PhD Students Year Title
J. Orwin 2002 The proglacial control on suspended sediment transfer patterns from a deglacierizing basin, Small River, British Columbia
MSc Students Year Title
D. Barr Current TBA
C. Crawley 2010 Spatial and temporal assessment of the Thames River surface water quality monitoring program, Ontario
T. Davie 2009 Alternative monitoring strategies for mesoscale catchments: Medway Creek, Ontario
R. Adams 2007 Filter Fluorometric Tracing for Contaminant Transport Modeling
E. Hill 2006 Suspended sediment and pathogens in surface waters
S. Bod 2004 Surface and ground water response of an upland swamp to drainage and drainage control in Norfolk County, Ontario
A. Joyce 2004 Exploration of fluorometric monitoring of surface waters
A. Calarco 2003 Modeling systematic spatial error of digital terrain models
J. Barker 2000 An investigation of borehole hydrology in carbonate aquifers
S. Lane 1999 Investigation of systematic errors in fluorometric tracing
D. Lockrey 1996 Suspended sediment variations in a glacierized alpine catchment
L. Zabo 1995 Fluorometric tracing of subglacial hydrology, Small River Glacier, British Columbia, Canada
B. Ketterling 1995 Electrical conductivity of waters in glacier boreholes
K. Carr 1994 An investigation of the subglacial drainage system beneath the lower abliation zone of Small River Glacier, British Columbia
D. Huntley 1990 Hydrogeomorphology of an alpine karst

Also from this web page:

Chris Smart

  • Office: SSC 1402
  • Telephone: 661-2111 x85007
  • e-mail:


Courses Taught